A primeira ferramenta para o ESP-01 no Linux é o esptool.py.
No esptool dá para fazer a manutenção completa do ESP-01

[email protected]:~/Downloads# wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/themadinventor/esptool/master/esptool.py
--2015-04-25 17:33:39--  https://raw.githubusercontent.com/themadinventor/esptool/master/esptool.py
Resolving raw.githubusercontent.com (raw.githubusercontent.com)... 199.27.75.133
Connecting to raw.githubusercontent.com (raw.githubusercontent.com)|199.27.75.133|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 23964 (23K) [text/plain]
Saving to: ‘esptool.py’

100%[===============================================================================================================================>] 23.964      --.-K/s   in 0,006s 

2015-04-25 17:33:40 (3,88 MB/s) - ‘esptool.py’ saved [23964/23964]

[email protected]:~/Downloads# chmod +x esptool.py



[email protected]:~/Downloads# ./esptool.py --port /dev/ttyUSB0 read_mac
Connecting...
MAC: 18:fe:34:9f:13:f3
[email protected]:~/Downloads#


https://github.com/nodemcu/nodemcu-firmware/releases/tag/0.9.6-dev_20150406

[email protected]:~/Downloads# ./esptool.py --port /dev/ttyUSB0 write_flash 0x0 nodemcu_integer_0.9.6-dev_20150406.bin
Connecting...
Erasing flash...
Writing at 0x00066400... (100 %)

Leaving...
[email protected]:~/Downloads#